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Japanese Auxiliary Verbs Made Easy For Beginners

Definition: All auxiliary verbs in Japanese attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, the auxiliars verbs are different to normal verbs in having no independent meaning as a normal verb. In modern Japanese there are two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs.

Pure auxiliaries - ๅŠฉๅ‹•่ฉž - jodลshiThese auxiliaries Verbs cannot possibly function as an independent verb.

ใพใ™ (*masu*)ๆ›ธใ (*kaku*, to write) โ†’ ๆ›ธใใพใ™(*kakimasu*)
ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹(*rareru*)่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ (*miru*, to see) โ†’ ่ฆ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (*mirareru*, to be able to see) ๅข—ใˆใ‚‹ (*fueru*, to increae) โ†’ ๅข—ใˆใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (*fuerareru*, to have the ability to increase)
ใ‚‹ (*ru*)้ฃฒใ‚€ (*nomu*, to drink/swallow) โ†’ ้ฃฒใ‚ใ‚‹ (*nomeru*, to be able to drink)
ใ•ใ›ใ‚‹ (*saseru*)่€ƒใˆใ‚‹ (*kangaeru*, to think) โ†’ ่€ƒใˆใ•ใ›ใ‚‹ (*kangaesaseru*, to cause to think)
ใ›ใ‚‹ (*seru*)ๆ€ใ„็Ÿฅใ‚‹ (*omoishiru*, to realize) โ†’ ๆ€ใ„็Ÿฅใ‚‰ใ›ใ‚‹ (*omoishiraseru*, to cause to realize/to teach a lesson)

Helper auxiliaries - ่ฃœๅŠฉๅ‹•่ฉž - hododลshi

These are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.

ใ‚ใ‚‹ (*aru*, to be (inanimate))้–‹ใ (*aku*, to open) โ†’ ้–‹ใ„ใฆใ‚ใ‚‹ (*aite-aru*, opened and is still open)
ใ„ใ‚‹ (*iru*, to be(animate))ๅฏใ‚‹ (*neru*, to sleep) โ†’ ๅฏใฆใ„ใ‚‹ (*nete-iru*, is sleeping)
ใ„ใ (*iku*, to go)ๆญฉใ (*aruku*, to walk) โ†’ ๆญฉใ„ใฆใ„ใ (*aruite-iku*, keep walking)
ใใ‚‹ (*kuru*, to come)ใชใ‚‹ (*naru*, become) โ†’ ใชใฃใฆใใ‚‹ (*natte-kuru*, start becoming)
ๅง‹ใ‚ใ‚‹ (*hajimeru*, to begin)ๆ›ธใ (*kaku*, to write) โ†’ ๆ›ธใๅง‹ใ‚ใ‚‹ (*kaki-hajimeru*, start to write)
ๅ‡บใ™ (*dasu*, to emit)่ผใ (*kagayaku*, to shine) โ†’ ่ผใๅ‡บใ™ (*kagayaki-dasu*, to start shining)
ใฟใ‚‹ (*miru*, to see)ใ™ใ‚‹ (*suru*, do) โ†’ ใ—ใฆใฟใŸใ„ (*shite-mitai*, try to do)
ใชใŠใ™ (*naosu*, to correct/heal)ๆ›ธใ (*kaku*, to write) โ†’ ๆ›ธใใชใŠใ™ (*kaki-naosu*, rewrite)
ใ‚ใŒใ‚‹ (*agaru*, to rise)็ซ‹ใค (*tatsu*, to stand) โ†’ ็ซ‹ใกไธŠใŒใ‚‹ (*tachi-agaru*, stand up) ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚‹ (*dekiru*, to come out) โ†’ ๅ‡บๆฅไธŠใŒใ‚‹ (*deki-agaru*, be completed)
ๅพ—ใ‚‹ (*eru/uru*, to be able)ใ‚ใ‚‹ (*aru*, to be) โ†’ ใ‚ใ‚Šๅพ—ใ‚‹ (*arieru*, is possible)
ใ‹ใ‹ใ‚‹ (*kakaru*, to hang/catch/obtain)ๆบบใ‚Œใ‚‹ (*oboreru*, drown) โ†’ ๆบบใ‚Œใ‹ใ‹ใ‚‹ (*obore-kakaru*, about to drown)
ใใ‚‹ (*kiru*, to cut)้ฃŸในใ‚‹ (*taberu*, to eat) โ†’ ้ฃŸในใใ‚‹ (*tabe-kiru*, to eat it all)
ๆถˆใ™ (*kesu*, to erase)ๆ‰ใ‚€ (*momu*, to rub) โ†’ ๆ‰ใฟๆถˆใ™ (*momi-kesu*, to rub out, to extinguish)
่พผใ‚€ (*komu*, to enter deeply/plunge)่ฉฑใ™ (*hanasu*, to speak) โ†’ ่ฉฑใ—่พผใ‚€ (*hanashi-komu*, to be deep in conversation)
ไธ‹ใ’ใ‚‹ (*sageru*, to lower)ๅผ•ใ (*hiku*, to pull) โ†’ ๅผ•ใไธ‹ใ’ใ‚‹ (*hiki-sageru*, to pull down)
้ŽใŽใ‚‹ (*sugiru*, to exceed)่จ€ใ† (*iu*, to say) โ†’ ่จ€ใ„ใ™ใŽใ‚‹ (*ii-sugiru*, to say too much, to overstate)
ไป˜ใ‘ใ‚‹ (*tsukeru*, to attach)่กŒใ (*iku*, to go) โ†’ ่กŒใไป˜ใ‘ใ‚‹ (*iki-tsukeru*, be used to (going))
็ถšใ‘ใ‚‹ (*tsuzukeru*, to continue)้™ใ‚‹ (*furu*, to fall (eg. rain)) โ†’ ้™ใ‚Š็ถšใ‘ใ‚‹ (*furi-tsuzukeru*, to keep falling)
้€šใ™ (*tลsu*, to show/thread/lead)่ชญใ‚€ (*yomu*, to read) โ†’ ่ชญใฟ้€šใ™ (*yomi-tลsu*, to finish reading)
ๆŠœใ‘ใ‚‹ (*nukeru*, to shed/spill/desert)่ตฐใ‚‹ (*hashiru*, to run) โ†’ ่ตฐใ‚ŠๆŠœใ‘ใ‚‹ (*hashiri-nukeru*, to run through (swh))
ๆฎ‹ใ™ (*nokosu*, to leave behind)ๆ€ใ† (*omou*, to think) โ†’ ๆ€ใ„ๆฎ‹ใ™ (*omoi-nokosu*, to regret (lit: to have sth left to think about))
ๆฎ‹ใ‚‹ (*nokoru*, to be left behind)็”Ÿใใ‚‹ (*ikiru*, live) โ†’ ็”Ÿใๆฎ‹ใ‚‹ (*iki-nokoru*, to survive (lit: to be left alive))
ๅˆ†ใ‘ใ‚‹ (*wakeru*, to divide/split/classify)ไฝฟใ† (*tsukau*, use) โ†’ ไฝฟใ„ๅˆ†ใ‘ใ‚‹ (*tsukai-wakeru*, to indicate the proper way to use)
ๅฟ˜ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (*wasureru*, to forget)่žใ (*kiku*, to ask) โ†’ ่žใๅฟ˜ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (*kiki-wasureru*, to forget to ask)

Author: Ichika
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