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Japanese Auxiliary Verbs Made Easy For Beginners

Definition: All auxiliary verbs in Japanese attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, the auxiliars verbs are different to normal verbs in having no independent meaning as a normal verb. In modern Japanese there are two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs.

Pure auxiliaries - ๅŠฉๅ‹•่ฉž - jodลshiThese auxiliaries Verbs cannot possibly function as an independent verb.

Auxiliar Example
ใพใ™ (masu) ๆ›ธใ (kaku, to write) โ†’ ๆ›ธใใพใ™(kakimasu)
ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹(rareru) ่ฆ‹ใ‚‹ (miru, to see) โ†’ ่ฆ‹ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (mirareru, to be able to see) ๅข—ใˆใ‚‹ (fueru, to increae) โ†’ ๅข—ใˆใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (fuerareru, to have the ability to increase)
ใ‚‹ (ru) ้ฃฒใ‚€ (nomu, to drink/swallow) โ†’ ้ฃฒใ‚ใ‚‹ (nomeru, to be able to drink)
ใ•ใ›ใ‚‹ (saseru) ่€ƒใˆใ‚‹ (kangaeru, to think) โ†’ ่€ƒใˆใ•ใ›ใ‚‹ (kangaesaseru, to cause to think)
ใ›ใ‚‹ (seru) ๆ€ใ„็Ÿฅใ‚‹ (omoishiru, to realize) โ†’ ๆ€ใ„็Ÿฅใ‚‰ใ›ใ‚‹ (omoishiraseru, to cause to realize/to teach a lesson)

Helper auxiliaries - ่ฃœๅŠฉๅ‹•่ฉž - hododลshi

These are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.

Auxiliar Example
ใ‚ใ‚‹ (aru, to be (inanimate)) ้–‹ใ (aku, to open) โ†’ ้–‹ใ„ใฆใ‚ใ‚‹ (aite-aru, opened and is still open)
ใ„ใ‚‹ (iru, to be(animate)) ๅฏใ‚‹ (neru, to sleep) โ†’ ๅฏใฆใ„ใ‚‹ (nete-iru, is sleeping)
ใ„ใ (iku, to go) ๆญฉใ (aruku, to walk) โ†’ ๆญฉใ„ใฆใ„ใ (aruite-iku, keep walking)
ใใ‚‹ (kuru, to come) ใชใ‚‹ (naru, become) โ†’ ใชใฃใฆใใ‚‹ (natte-kuru, start becoming)
ๅง‹ใ‚ใ‚‹ (hajimeru, to begin) ๆ›ธใ (kaku, to write) โ†’ ๆ›ธใๅง‹ใ‚ใ‚‹ (kaki-hajimeru, start to write)
ๅ‡บใ™ (dasu, to emit) ่ผใ (kagayaku, to shine) โ†’ ่ผใๅ‡บใ™ (kagayaki-dasu, to start shining)
ใฟใ‚‹ (miru, to see) ใ™ใ‚‹ (suru, do) โ†’ ใ—ใฆใฟใŸใ„ (shite-mitai, try to do)
ใชใŠใ™ (naosu, to correct/heal) ๆ›ธใ (kaku, to write) โ†’ ๆ›ธใใชใŠใ™ (kaki-naosu, rewrite)
ใ‚ใŒใ‚‹ (agaru, to rise)

็ซ‹ใค (tatsu, to stand) โ†’ ็ซ‹ใกไธŠใŒใ‚‹ (tachi-agaru, stand up) ๅ‡บๆฅใ‚‹ (dekiru, to come out) โ†’ ๅ‡บๆฅไธŠใŒใ‚‹ (deki-agaru, be completed)

ๅพ—ใ‚‹ (eru/uru, to be able) ใ‚ใ‚‹ (aru, to be) โ†’ ใ‚ใ‚Šๅพ—ใ‚‹ (arieru, is possible)
ใ‹ใ‹ใ‚‹ (kakaru, to hang/catch/obtain) ๆบบใ‚Œใ‚‹ (oboreru, drown) โ†’ ๆบบใ‚Œใ‹ใ‹ใ‚‹ (obore-kakaru, about to drown)
ใใ‚‹ (kiru, to cut) ้ฃŸในใ‚‹ (taberu, to eat) โ†’ ้ฃŸในใใ‚‹ (tabe-kiru, to eat it all)
ๆถˆใ™ (kesu, to erase) ๆ‰ใ‚€ (momu, to rub) โ†’ ๆ‰ใฟๆถˆใ™ (momi-kesu, to rub out, to extinguish)
่พผใ‚€ (komu, to enter deeply/plunge) ่ฉฑใ™ (hanasu, to speak) โ†’ ่ฉฑใ—่พผใ‚€ (hanashi-komu, to be deep in conversation)
ไธ‹ใ’ใ‚‹ (sageru, to lower) ๅผ•ใ (hiku, to pull) โ†’ ๅผ•ใไธ‹ใ’ใ‚‹ (hiki-sageru, to pull down)
้ŽใŽใ‚‹ (sugiru, to exceed) ่จ€ใ† (iu, to say) โ†’ ่จ€ใ„ใ™ใŽใ‚‹ (ii-sugiru, to say too much, to overstate)
ไป˜ใ‘ใ‚‹ (tsukeru, to attach) ่กŒใ (iku, to go) โ†’ ่กŒใไป˜ใ‘ใ‚‹ (iki-tsukeru, be used to (going))
็ถšใ‘ใ‚‹ (tsuzukeru, to continue) ้™ใ‚‹ (furu, to fall (eg. rain)) โ†’ ้™ใ‚Š็ถšใ‘ใ‚‹ (furi-tsuzukeru, to keep falling)
้€šใ™ (tลsu, to show/thread/lead) ่ชญใ‚€ (yomu, to read) โ†’ ่ชญใฟ้€šใ™ (yomi-tลsu, to finish reading)
ๆŠœใ‘ใ‚‹ (nukeru, to shed/spill/desert) ่ตฐใ‚‹ (hashiru, to run) โ†’ ่ตฐใ‚ŠๆŠœใ‘ใ‚‹ (hashiri-nukeru, to run through (swh))
ๆฎ‹ใ™ (nokosu, to leave behind) ๆ€ใ† (omou, to think) โ†’ ๆ€ใ„ๆฎ‹ใ™ (omoi-nokosu, to regret (lit: to have sth left to think about))
ๆฎ‹ใ‚‹ (nokoru, to be left behind) ็”Ÿใใ‚‹ (ikiru, live) โ†’ ็”Ÿใๆฎ‹ใ‚‹ (iki-nokoru, to survive (lit: to be left alive))
ๅˆ†ใ‘ใ‚‹ (wakeru, to divide/split/classify) ไฝฟใ† (tsukau, use) โ†’ ไฝฟใ„ๅˆ†ใ‘ใ‚‹ (tsukai-wakeru, to indicate the proper way to use)
ๅฟ˜ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (wasureru, to forget) ่žใ (kiku, to ask) โ†’ ่žใๅฟ˜ใ‚Œใ‚‹ (kiki-wasureru, to forget to ask)

Author: Ichika
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