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Japanese Auxiliary Verbs Made Easy For Beginners

Definition: All auxiliary verbs in Japanese attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, the auxiliars verbs are different to normal verbs in having no independent meaning as a normal verb. In modern Japanese there are two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs.

Pure auxiliaries - - jodōshiThese auxiliaries Verbs cannot possibly function as an independent verb.

**Auxiliar****Example**
ます (*masu*)書く (*kaku*, to write) → 書きます(*kakimasu*)
られる(*rareru*)見る (*miru*, to see) → 見られる (*mirareru*, to be able to see) 増える (*fueru*, to increae) → 増えられる (*fuerareru*, to have the ability to increase)
る (*ru*)飲む (*nomu*, to drink/swallow) → 飲める (*nomeru*, to be able to drink)
させる (*saseru*)考える (*kangaeru*, to think) → 考えさせる (*kangaesaseru*, to cause to think)
せる (*seru*)思い知る (*omoishiru*, to realize) → 思い知らせる (*omoishiraseru*, to cause to realize/to teach a lesson)

Helper auxiliaries - - hododōshi

These are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.

**Auxiliar****Example**
ある (*aru*, to be (inanimate))開く (*aku*, to open) → 開いてある (*aite-aru*, opened and is still open)
いる (*iru*, to be(animate))寝る (*neru*, to sleep) → 寝ている (*nete-iru*, is sleeping)
いく (*iku*, to go)歩く (*aruku*, to walk) → 歩いていく (*aruite-iku*, keep walking)
くる (*kuru*, to come)なる (*naru*, become) → なってくる (*natte-kuru*, start becoming)
始める (*hajimeru*, to begin)書く (*kaku*, to write) → 書き始める (*kaki-hajimeru*, start to write)
出す (*dasu*, to emit)輝く (*kagayaku*, to shine) → 輝き出す (*kagayaki-dasu*, to start shining)
みる (*miru*, to see)する (*suru*, do) → してみたい (*shite-mitai*, try to do)
なおす (*naosu*, to correct/heal)書く (*kaku*, to write) → 書きなおす (*kaki-naosu*, rewrite)
あがる (*agaru*, to rise)立つ (*tatsu*, to stand) → 立ち上がる (*tachi-agaru*, stand up) 出来る (*dekiru*, to come out) → 出来上がる (*deki-agaru*, be completed)
得る (*eru/uru*, to be able)ある (*aru*, to be) → あり得る (*arieru*, is possible)
かかる (*kakaru*, to hang/catch/obtain)溺れる (*oboreru*, drown) → 溺れかかる (*obore-kakaru*, about to drown)
きる (*kiru*, to cut)食べる (*taberu*, to eat) → 食べきる (*tabe-kiru*, to eat it all)
消す (*kesu*, to erase)揉む (*momu*, to rub) → 揉み消す (*momi-kesu*, to rub out, to extinguish)
込む (*komu*, to enter deeply/plunge)話す (*hanasu*, to speak) → 話し込む (*hanashi-komu*, to be deep in conversation)
下げる (*sageru*, to lower)引く (*hiku*, to pull) → 引き下げる (*hiki-sageru*, to pull down)
過ぎる (*sugiru*, to exceed)言う (*iu*, to say) → 言いすぎる (*ii-sugiru*, to say too much, to overstate)
付ける (*tsukeru*, to attach)行く (*iku*, to go) → 行き付ける (*iki-tsukeru*, be used to (going))
続ける (*tsuzukeru*, to continue)降る (*furu*, to fall (eg. rain)) → 降り続ける (*furi-tsuzukeru*, to keep falling)
通す (*tōsu*, to show/thread/lead)読む (*yomu*, to read) → 読み通す (*yomi-tōsu*, to finish reading)
抜ける (*nukeru*, to shed/spill/desert)走る (*hashiru*, to run) → 走り抜ける (*hashiri-nukeru*, to run through (swh))
残す (*nokosu*, to leave behind)思う (*omou*, to think) → 思い残す (*omoi-nokosu*, to regret (lit: to have sth left to think about))
残る (*nokoru*, to be left behind)生きる (*ikiru*, live) → 生き残る (*iki-nokoru*, to survive (lit: to be left alive))
分ける (*wakeru*, to divide/split/classify)使う (*tsukau*, use) → 使い分ける (*tsukai-wakeru*, to indicate the proper way to use)
忘れる (*wasureru*, to forget)聞く (*kiku*, to ask) → 聞き忘れる (*kiki-wasureru*, to forget to ask)

Author: Ichika
"新しい言語は、新たな人生の始まり。"
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